Core tip: The most common location of a hydatid echinococcal cyst is in the liver. The survival of Echinococcus within host tissues, despite the development of specific antibodies, is possible due to specific immunomodulation induced by parasites. Perpetual survival of parasites indicating multi-level systematic evasion against host protective reaction to persist their growth and spreading. Complement modulation, a metabolic adaptation to the host microenvironment, plentiful thermostable immunogenic antigen B in the cystic fluid, and induction of CD4+CD8+FOXP3+ T cells allows the persistence of the parasites. Parasites influence dendritic cell (DC) maturation and impair activation by toll-like receptor. It seems that DC-parasite interaction is pivotal in triggering and regulating parasite induced immunity.

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