The use of vaccines including aluminum (Al)–based adjuvants is widespread among small ruminants and other animals. They
are associated with the appearance of transient injection site nodules corresponding to granulomas.
Silicone breast implants (SBI) may induce systemic autoimmune disease as part of autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). This syndrome bears similarities to fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).