The current paradigm in disease etiopathogenesis implicates the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Multiple genes have been linked to susceptibility of patients to develop T1DM, including the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci HLA-DRB1 and DQB1.
A review of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) must start with a
discussion of the functional characteristics of small nerve fibers,
which consist of the myelinated A fibers and unmyelinated C fibers. Small nerve fibers convey temperature and pain sensation
after mechanical or thermal stimulation of the skin. In addition,
C fibers are involved in autonomic function. SFN affects the A and
C fibers and can therefore present not only as disorders of temperature and pain sensation, but also as autonomic disorders whose considerable diversity reflects that of C-fiber function.
The role of vitamin D in innate and adaptive immunity is critical. It has been shown that the redirection of human autoreactive T-cells upon interaction with dendritic cells can be modulated by an analog of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
Circadian rhythm-related genes: implication in autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes