In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), immunological triggers at mucosal sites, such as the gut microbiota, may promote autoimmunity that affects joints.
Antibodies that recognize the phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex (antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies; aPS/PT) might reveal enhanced thrombotic risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Little is known about their association with pregnancy complications in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).
Idiopathic inflammatorymyopathies are heterogeneous in their pathophysiologic features and prognosis. The emergence ofmyositis-specific autoantibodies suggests that subgroups of patients exist.
In this review, we will describe the immunologic aspects of pregnancy
and tolerance, with an emphasis on the crucial role of vitamin D as a regulatory factor, which contributes to the prevention of immune-mediated Recurrent pregnancy loss.
Since the peripheral cytokines, produced after the injection of the vaccines, are able to reach the central nervous system, we hypothesize that these cytokines can have effects on the microglia (macrophages of the central nervous system), and that these effects can be facilitated by repeated vaccinations to infants during the first year of life.
Smoking is Associated with low levels of soluble PD-L1 in Rheumatoid Arthritis
APS is recognised as one of the main acquired prothrombotic conditions that predispose to venous thromboembolism (also
referred to as ‘acquired thrombophilia’). Nevertheless, APS is a unique prothrombotic condition since thrombotic events can also
occur in arterial vessels and in the microvasculature. Symptoms are heterogeneous and range from asymptomatic multiple, small
ischaemic episodes to catastrophic ischaemic strokes.
The incidence and prevalence of antiphospholipid syndrome are estimated at approximately 5 de novo cases per 100 000 per year
and 40–50 cases per 100 000 individuals, respectively.
Possible relationship between drug exposure and multiple sclerosis (MS) development is insufficiently investigated, and further challenged by the incomplete understanding of MS etiopathogenesis. The study aims to investigate whether drug exposure could contribute to MS, by analyzing worldwide spontaneous reporting archives of adverse drug reaction (ADRs).
The treatment of autoimmune disease is a challenge and priority as they affect 50 million individuals in the United States, and currently they collectively are the third most common disease category.